Li Ji: Ecological agriculture is the general trend


A single technology cannot solve agricultural environmental problems. Agricultural environmental problems must be solved systematically, from the source and process.It is only right that the ecosystem itself does not produce pollution, rather than leaving pollution to be dealt with later.Will tell on the whole, ecological agriculture is general trend.In 2015, we undertook a soft science project of the Ministry of Agriculture, focusing on the comparative study of fertilizer application at home and abroad.We analyzed population, land, GDP per capita and fertilizer use between 1960 and 2012 for more than 30 countries, including the United States, Australia, Canada, Germany, France, The United Kingdom, Japan, South Korea, India, Brazil, Russia, South Africa and Mexico.The data show that fertilizer use in the United States basically follows a “growth-steady” pattern, rising from 1961 to 1980 and then stabilizing.In Australia and Canada, where the land area is relatively large, fertilizer use has shown an “increasing” trend and is still increasing, especially in Canada;Several European countries, such as Germany, Britain and France, showed a “growth-decrease” trend. They all experienced an obvious inflection point after an upward trend, and then sharply declined.The situation in Japan and South Korea is similar to that in Europe, which is basically growth, then steady and then decline. South Korea started to decline in the late 1990s, Japan earlier;In Mexico, Brazil, India and other developing countries, the use of chemical fertilizer basically increased and then stabilized or increased.China’s fertilizer consumption pattern is similar to that of Brazil and India, both of which show an overall growth trend. However, China’s fertilizer consumption is much higher than Brazil and India, and it is the highest among all countries.Both America and Mexico are in a “growth-and-stability” pattern, with consumption now around 90% of its peak.Germany, France, Britain, South Korea and Japan followed a “growth-down” pattern, with consumption now around 50% of its peak.The inflection point occurred in most countries in the 1980s and 1990s, the inflection point of decreasing fertilizer use in Germany, France, Britain, Japan and other countries and the stable fertilizer consumption in the United States were mostly in the middle and late 1980s.We also analyzed the relationship between per capita GDP and fertilizer consumption.The results showed that the fertilizer consumption in Britain, France, Germany, Japan and South Korea increased first and then decreased with the increase of per capita GDP, while the fertilizer consumption in the United States, Australia and South Africa increased first and then stabilized with the increase of per capita GDP.The inflection point of fertilizer consumption in the United States, Germany, Britain, France, Japan and South Korea occurred in the 1980s and 1990s when per capita GDP was between 8000 and 12000 USD.Fertilizer consumption in China, India, Brazil and Mexico increased with the increase of GDP per capita, but the growth rate of fertilizer consumption slowed down with the increase of GDP, especially in China.This shows that the trend of fertilizer use is actually regular.When a country’s economic development reaches a certain level, fertilizer use is bound to decline.Personally, I think this is actually an economic phenomenon. In the era of industrialization, the economic model is always at the expense of the environment.And in the industrialized or ecological civilization era, the whole society began to pay attention to environmental protection, the public’s environmental awareness widely promoted, traditional methods of production must rely on high investment, high pollution, the government and enterprises begin to consider how to coordinate the relationship between economic development and environmental protection, chemical fertilizer usage will tend to be stable or falling.In fact, in 2015, China’s per capita GDP has exceeded 8,000 US dollars, and is continuing to grow at a growth rate of around 6.5%. From the perspective of macroeconomic level and the law of world development, China will enter an important historical inflection point of fertilizer use from increase to decrease.In essence, the reduction of chemical fertilizer application reflects the transformation path and direction from conventional agriculture to environmental protection agriculture and indicates the development direction of agriculture in the future.How to adapt to this trend and how to establish sustainable agricultural production system and give full play to the advantage of backwardness is worth people’s attention.The following examples fully illustrate that modern agriculture has reached a stage where a single technology cannot solve the problem.Vegetable planting and groundwater pollution in North China.In North China, large areas of vegetable cultivation and high nitrogen fertilizer inputs have led to nitrate pollution in groundwater.The problem is well known, but has not actually been solved yet.What we have done is small-scale research and demonstration, but not large-scale demonstration, and there is basically no change in groundwater pollution in a large area.And in recent years, the vegetable input of facilities in North China has increased, because many places are still using a large amount of organic fertilizer on the basis of the original fertilizer input (some places began to reduce the amount of fertilizer).Our demonstration of substituting organic fertilizer for chemical fertilizer in the Shandong plain showed that by reducing fertilizer by half, vegetable yields could be increased by more than 30%.But the replacement of organic fertilizer does not seem to solve the problem of local groundwater pollution, which is impossible to achieve by household.Aquaculture waste treatment and resource utilization.In 2017, the state invested a total of 2 billion yuan in the treatment of livestock and poultry waste in more than 50 counties, which is actually very limited for each county.We found that many farms were blind and had no supporting land at the beginning. In recent years, under the pressure of environmental protection, they spent a lot of money on wastewater treatment to meet the discharge standards.These breeding enterprises did not expect that in the case of lack of supporting land, affected by the cost of environmental governance, they will either face relocation or collapse in the market competition in the future.A single technology cannot solve the problem of livestock and poultry manure pollution in the farm. Ultimately, we have to return to the overall solution, that is, breeding should be combined with planting to achieve zero emissions, solid manure should be returned to the farm, and liquid wastewater should also be returned to the farm.According to the calculation of 5 pigs in 1 mu of land, a large-scale pig farm with 100,000 pigs will support 20,000 mu of farmland. At present, the land transfer fee is about 1000 yuan per mu, and the cost of land transfer is not low.Therefore, it is necessary to rely on the overall planning and layout of the government, and the breeding enterprises should not excessively pursue the scale, but moderately disperse and combine with the planting industry, so as to solve this problem.Beijing agricultural ecology needs reconstruction.Beijing is now engaged in urban agriculture, also facing a lot of difficulties.In order to ensure the city’s water supply, the suburbs of Beijing developed water-saving agriculture and began to restrict water-consuming crops.Construction of ecological barriers, vigorously develop forestry, it is necessary to occupy the arable land;The development of leisure agriculture, planting a large number of foreign artificial plants, colorful is very beautiful, but it has destroyed a lot of natural landscape;Organic farming for many years, but lack of confidence that it can not be done;Circular agriculture is faced with breeding emigration, resulting in artificial separation of planting and raising.On the whole, the agricultural foundation of agriculture is being shaken in an all-round way. Soil, water, plants, animals and farmers are all facing the situation of being cut in half and disassembled, and the agricultural ecological system is facing the threat of comprehensive degradation.From the above three examples, it can be seen that a single technology can not solve agricultural environmental problems, agricultural environmental problems must start from the system, from the source and process to get a radical solution.It is only right that the ecosystem itself does not produce pollution, rather than leaving pollution to be dealt with later.Will tell on the whole, ecological agriculture is general trend.Many countries are in the process of agricultural ecological transformation, which means that more attention should be paid to the ecological function, environmental function and landscape and cultural function besides the production function. But is it the time for China’s agriculture?Should we transfer at all?The previous fertilizer data actually provides a support.However, there is still a lack of top-level policies to promote agricultural ecological transformation at the national level.From the perspective of agricultural production function, the implementation of ecological agriculture does not necessarily mean that grain production and crop failure.Major countries in the world, such as the United States, Australia, Japan and so on, did not reduce grain production due to the implementation of environmental protection policies;On the contrary, due to the comprehensive implementation of environmentally friendly agriculture, on the one hand, these pioneering countries have made full use of world trade liberalization to obtain some food products at lower costs;On the other hand, it has avoided many trade barriers from WTO through environmental protection policies or green box policies, and successfully realized the historic transformation of agriculture from unsustainable to sustainable.At present, it is worth deeply analyzing and summarizing the experience and lessons of the transition process of developed countries, clarifying the ideas of agricultural development, and providing a top-level policy design framework for the stable development of China’s agriculture in the coming decades.At the same time, pilot projects of relevant industries, technologies and policies will be launched to provide feasible plans and approaches for promoting them.In terms of policies, we should improve the organic, green and ecological ecological agricultural production system, establish agricultural transformation targets and indicators (10% in 2015 and 50% in 2030), and implement ecological compensation policies in key areas.In the process of environmental transformation, China’s agriculture needs to absorb the experience of Japan and South Korea, amend the agricultural law from the top or formulate special agricultural ecological environment protection law;In the Ministry of Agriculture to improve the environmental protection and ecological related functions of the department, the corresponding establishment of different levels of government management institutions, and coordination of relevant research institutions supporting system;We will coordinate national subsidies for agriculture, cancel those that are harmful to environmental protection, and adjust the system of preferential subsidy policies for environmentally friendly agriculture.The certification and management system of ecological agricultural products should be revised, and the pollution-free mark should be abolished. The specific proportion of fertilizer and pesticide reduction should be suggested for the green mark, and the development of organic agriculture should be encouraged.We will launch a new round of national action plan for ecological agriculture construction, and coordinate the overall layout and construction of agriculture and the environment at the regional level.We will carry out a monitoring network for soil, water and air and plan for the construction of the rural ecological environment.2. Countermeasures and Suggestions for ecological farm development In addition to carrying out top-level ecological agricultural policy design and macro layout, it is very necessary to carry out ecological farm construction at the grassroots level.This is also one of the work we have carried out this year, namely the formulation of the ministry of Agriculture’s standards for identifying ecological farms.When considering the identification of ecological farms, we would like to start from the current rapid development of new rural business entities, including family farms, cooperatives, large growers, enterprises and so on.In addition, ecological farms should have clear boundaries, clear ownership and management rights, and legal land use rights and management rights.The farm area is not less than 50 mu;In the process of farm management actively adopt various ecological technology measures;Preference is given to farms certified for organic, green and eco-produce.The suggestions for the development of ecological farms are as follows :(1) improve the understanding level of governments at all levels and the public on ecological agriculture, and take ecological farms as an important starting point for the green development of agriculture in the future.(2) Establish the construction standard of ecological farm.(3) Formulate the list of technologies for the construction of ecological farms, promote the existing national agricultural subsidy policies, and favor the farms that adopt these green technologies.(4) Establish a nationwide ecological farm information and promotion network with the help of “Internet +”.(5) Strengthen the establishment of scientific research projects based on ecological farms, including long-term positioning experiments, major technology research and development, and the development and promotion of ecological agricultural products.In the next step, it is necessary to carry out ecological farm construction standards, technical guidelines for ecological farm construction, identification and management measures for ecological farm, national ecological farm information direct reporting system and regional demonstration of ecological farm identification.To create professional and accurate green food organic food investment agent to join the service platform at home and abroad!Consultation hotline: 18629077668 public account

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