Orchard spring scissors pay attention to these points

Spring temperatures are rising, the soil is thawing, and the busy season for orchard management has begun, with pruning, topdressing and pest control.A few days ago, Shanxi Province agricultural biotechnology research center researcher, Shanxi agriculture 110 expert Zhang Yiping in view of the current orchard plastic pruning put forward the following suggestions, farmers friends timely attention.Zhang Yiping shanxi agricultural biotechnology research center, a researcher at shanxi agricultural expert 1, 110 young trees should be flourishing by Qiao Guan tree branches and leaves too close to retrofit the influence, many areas will become less central sapling, shape without collateral, thin, bony, 2 ~ 3 years tree, only 5 ~ 6 branches, leading dry base 3,There are 2~3 on the top, the same as the tree model after transformation.It is difficult for such a tree to bear fruit in three years and yield yield in five.An orchard without sufficient branch and leaf area is absolutely impossible to produce a high yield.Studies have proved that to ensure the normal development of a fruit, there must be a considerable leaf photosynthesis, nutrition supply, there are differences between varieties, such as Fuji varieties a fruit normal development at least 50 leaves, to reach the branch fruit ratio of 5 to 6:1.Fewer branches, insufficient number of leaves, less flower bud formation, less fruit setting, sapling early harvest is bound to fail.National Fuji high quality and high yield technology promotion and cooperation group in 1972 Fuji apple sayoung early high yield of tree phase index can be used as a tree body management reference index: short stock or short branch type 3~6 years old, 5~8 years old tree, every 667 square meters of branches to reach 15,000 ~ 30,000, yield per 667 square meters to reach 300~500 kg.We can simply calculate, if according to such as 4 meters ×3 meters line plant distance, every 667 square meters of 55 strains, each plant should have 273~545 branches, such as roughly take the middle number, there should be more than 350 branches of all kinds.Such as 4 meters ×2.5 meters of plant spacing.66 plants per 667 m2.Each plant should have 227~455 branches, such as the same middle number, also want to have more than 300 branches of all kinds.Therefore, sapling pruning “light cut long put dense stay branch” principle must adhere to.2. The cultivation method of fruiting branch group should be changed. The cultivation method of fruiting branch group should be changed from cutting first and putting first to long putting first.Thus, the pattern of fruiting branch group changes from the compact, dense, multiaxial spherical, close to the backbone branch to loose, pendulous, pinnate uniaxial long strip.The practice in recent years proves that.This pinnate fruiting branch group, good light, high yield.Good quality.The specific approach is: (1) the use of natural growth of sagging branches, oblique branches, horizontal branches, uniaxial extension.Successive years of suspension.Erect new shoot on the back should be softened by rubbing branches and other techniques to change its growth direction.Remove only overdense branches, weak branches and competing branches.Only on the side of the perennial weak fruit branches for appropriate retraction, thinning.To the backbone branch that has pulled even, want to be opposite the bare place interval on its 15 centimeters left and right sides engrave bud, promote a new medium short branch, when the medium short branch base of new hair is woody change, make its keep drooping state through knead branch.② It is advisable to cultivate larger branch groups for oblique dorsal branches and horizontal strong branches on backbone branches.Take up enough horizontal space.Make full use of the back branch into flower results.The drooping branches and the drooping branches on the backbone branches, uniaxial extension, vertical growth, occupy vertical space, over-dense timely thinning, through reasonable arrangement, effective use of solar energy.The uniaxial pinnate fruiting branch group can be divided into large, medium and small groups according to the length of branch axis.The axial length of large fruiting branches is more than 70 cm, and the pinnate branches are less than 20 cm.The length of medium fruiting branches ranged from 40 to 70 cm, with pinnate branches no more than 15 cm;The small fruiting branch group has an axial length of less than 40 cm and pinnate branches of 5~10 cm.In the configuration of fruiting branch group on the main branch, the first large fruiting branch group was arranged from the base of the main branch 40 cm, and the second large fruiting branch group was arranged on the opposite side of the first branch group, about 25 cm apart.The third branch is about 50 cm from the same side of the first branch, and 3 to 5 large branch groups can be arranged according to the length of the main branch.Medium and small branch groups were arranged according to space size between large branch groups.The branch age of medium and small branch group was 1~2 years younger than that of large branch group.Partly to occupy space and partly to prepare for future updates.③ It is the key to cultivate loose fruiting branch group and maintain continuous fruiting to treat the secondary branches of fruiting branch group well in the growing season.When the fruit platform sends out a secondary shoot, if its growth potential can maintain the mean, summer cutting can not treat it, because when the mean fruit platform secondary shoot is in the loose drooping branch group, the probability of its growth is relatively low.The flowering rate was higher in the second year.If the fruit is relatively strong, the length of up to 50 cm, to do the corresponding treatment, can be taken by the branch, destroy its xylem, so that it drooping and flower.When the fruit platform issued two secondary shoots, the reason for its nutritional dispersion, that year is difficult to flower, according to its growth potential according to the weak stay strong, or to stay weak, maintain a neutral state, promote flower.(4) feathery fruit branch group, to reduce the short fruit branch results, if the short branch distance from the mother branch is too close, the fruit leans on the mother branch, easy to cause the shape of the fruit is not straight, the branch friction is serious, coupled with short fruit branch leaves, the fruit is easy to burn by direct light, affecting the fruit commodity rate.And the length of 10~20 cm fruit branches on the fruit, because the fruit sagging and part of the leaf shade, reduce the direct light, fruit shape.The color is bright, the quality is good, its commodity rate is high.3, do a good job of cutting sawing protection for rough cutting sawing, to use a sharp electrician’s knife to cut flat, and timely treatment with wound protective agent, to prevent the loss of water and nutrients in the tree, prevent the invasion of bacteria.Cutting saw mouth treatment can be used with commodity healing agent (such as fruit kangbao healing agent, methyl thiobazol ointment, liquid wax) and other closed cutting saw mouth.4, combined with winter cut to do a good job of disease and insect pest control on the branch, dry and dead branch processing, and pay attention to break the pest cocoon on the branch (such as yellow thorn moth), disease branch (such as powdery mildew branch).By cutting off and burning diseased and insect branches, the number of diseases and insect pests can be reduced effectively and the harm degree of diseases and insects can be greatly reduced.Pear garden, peach garden, apricot garden and other major orchards can be referred to management.

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